n October 2016, David Davis, the then Brexit secretary, told the House of Commons that “there will be no downside to Brexit at all, and considerable upsides”.
Five years on there are plenty of downsides emerging, though the upsides are, to put it mildly, more elusive.
If you know of any specific upsides or downsides, please email email@example.com with a link to a confirming story from a reputable source.
Downsides are growing fastest and are shown first but you can jump to the upsides below if you wish by clicking HERE.
We also maintain a list of ‘upsides’ that the government has claimed are benefits of Brexit, which are in fact fake. You can see this list under Brexit ‘benefit’ myths. Each one is debunked with verifiable evidence.
This list was last updated on 23 September 2021.
272. Christmas trees. According to retailer Christmastrees.co.uk, new Brexit rules, soaring prices and lack of labour have made importing trees more difficult and they warn of a potential shortage of UK grown trees this year.
271. Bonfire night. A Doncaster wholesaler is predicting a 70 per cent plunge in the industry-wide stock of fireworks, blaming changes to product certification post-Brexit, a shortage of labour and increased checks on imports. Richard Hogg, shop manager at Fireworks Kingdom, said importing fireworks had become “very difficult and unstable in the wake of Brexit.”
270. Next year’s harvest. UK fruit and vegetable growers plan to reduce planting for 2022 after unprecedented labour shortages led to widespread wastage of produce, with hundreds of tonnes of crops from broccoli to raspberries left to rot in the fields, according to the FT.
269. Tomatoes. Thanet Earth, one of the UK’s largest salad growing companies based in Kent, have had to destroy £320,000 of stock because of problems finding workers to pick and drivers to deliver their produce, according to local Conservative MP Sir Roger Gale speaking in the House of Commons.
268. Strawberries. Sharrington Strawberries in Norfolk have lost 20 per cent of their crop this year which remains unharvested after losing a third of their seasonal workforce following Brexit despite paying up to 50pc more in wages.
267. The City of London. The City is being warned to brace itself for a €900bn per day (this is not a typo) Brexit hit if Brussels ‘plays politics’ with clearing of euro-denominated derivatives in London says City AM commentator Michiel Willems.
266. M&S. After announcing the closure of 11 stores in France, Marks & Spencer has been forced to cut 800 lines from its stores in the Republic of Ireland, including items like free-range chicken, orchids and goods containing Parmesan Reggiano as a result of complex rules and excessive paperwork caused by Brexit.
265. Local Authorities. The cost of creating two new day centres to tackle dementia issues in Kirklees has jumped by almost a third: from £8m to £11m. The increase has been blamed by The Local Democracy Reporting Service on “significant rises in construction materials associated with Covid and Brexit.”
264. Increased duty. UK businesses and consumers have paid 42 per cent more in customs duties on goods since Brexit came into force on 1 January of this year. The jump to £2.2 billion is a new record coming mainly as a result of goods imported from the EU failing to meet rules of origin. The figures were obtained by accountancy firm UHY Hacker Young.
263. Energy costs. Having left the EU internal energy market and the day-ahead market coupling arrangements, imported power via the continental interconnectors is now by explicit auction and is likely to result in higher electricity prices for UK consumers in future according to research by energy consultants EnAppSys.
262. Blood tests. The British Medical Association is warning of a ‘catastrophic’ crisis in blood testing as the NHS struggles with a shortage of vials used for blood sample. The main manufacturer, Becton Dickinson, has been blamed for the crisis, but they have suggested the post-Brexit HGV driver shortage could be to blame.
261. Driving standards. The Transport Secretary Grant Shapps has announced that HGV driving tests are to be relaxed to allow 50,000 more to be taken in an attempt to tackle the shortage of lorry drivers ahead of Christmas. For example, reversing, uncoupling and recoupling trailer tests will removed – and drivers will be tested separately on this by a third party
260. Pollution. The Environment Agency has advised polluters that dumping raw sewage into rivers and the sea will be allowed as the discharge of effluent “without meeting the conditions” of their permits. It comes as businesses struggle to obtain water treatment chemicals because of supply chain disruption at ports blamed primarily on Britain’s departure from the EU.
259. Construction. Jewson, one of Britain’s biggest builders’ merchants has warned of shortages of materials as the industry struggles under mounting pressure from the deepest supply chain crisis in decades. It comes amid growing disruption linked to Covid and Brexit. “Material and staff costs went through the roof” due to “employee moves [and] overseas worker availability” said Duncan Brock of The Chartered Institute of Procurement and Supply (CIPS).
258. Housing. Brexit is being blamed for making the building of affordable homes on a Derbyshire housing site ‘unviable’. Langridge Homes says providing affordable homes on a 47-house scheme at Riddings is not viable after “unprecedented” 24 per cent post Brexit cost increases.
257. Pigs. Farmers may be forced to incinerate nearly 100,000 pigs due to a post-Brexit shortage of butchers after the profession was excluded from a list of so-called ‘Shortage Occupations.’ Industry figures say slaughterhouses are already becoming starved of qualified workers, with a backlog of 85,000 pigs awaiting slaughter and growing by 15,000 every week
256. Ikea.The home furnishings retailer Ikea is struggling to supply around 1,000 product lines to UK customers due to Brexit and lorry driver shortage with all 22 UK stores experiencing ‘ongoing challenges’ with supply chains, according to The Independent.
255. Coca Cola. LBC claim we may experience a shortage of Diet Coke and Coke Zero in shops as Coca-Cola issued a warning about availability of aluminium cans, the latest in a series of supply chain issues that have affected UK consumers, blamed widely on Brexit, Covid-19 and a lack of available qualified lorry drivers in the UK.
254. Food exports. Exports of food and drink to the EU have suffered a “disastrous” decline in the first half of the year because of Brexit trade barriers, with sales of beef and cheese hit hardest the Food and Drink Federation (FDF) say. Producers lost £2bn in sales, a dent in revenue that could not be compensated for by the increased sales in the same period to non-EU countries including China and Australia.
253. House plants. House plants such as aspidistra, yucca and cactus have become more expensive because of Brexit red tape, as garden centres warn new rules have made it more difficult to import stock according to the Horticultural Trades Association and reported by The Daily Telegraph (£).
252. Beer. Wetherspoons has been hit by beer shortages due to supply chain issues caused by Brexit. The company said supplies of Carling and Coors beer have been hit, with some pubs not receiving deliveries and they have blamed lorry driver and factory staff shortages, LBC report.
251. Buses. Bus operator Stagecoach has been forced to cancel services in Gloucester, Cheltenham and Stroud because of the national driver shortage. The company laid the blame on Brexit and the pandemic according to local news outlets.
250. Rising prices. Food prices are set to rise later this year as the shortage of lorry drivers and more regulatory checks on imported food combine with rising prices for fuel, freight and raw materials, experts have warned in a report in The Financial Times (£).
249. Books. Authors Hilary Mantel and William Boyd have issued a stark warning that the UK book industry faces collapse if “disgraceful” post-Brexit changes to copyright rules, being considered by the government, go ahead.
248. Christmas workers. A shortage of fruit pickers in the UK is set to spread to warehouse workers in the run-up to Christmas, according to Gary Grant, head of toy chain The Entertainer. Mr Grant said a workforce of largely eastern European migrants work on farms in the summer and swap to picking boxes in warehouses later in the year.
247. School meals. Schools have been warned to prepare for food shortages ahead of the new school year and urged by wholesalers to “stock up” according to The Grocer. The Federation of Wholesale Distributors has again called on the government to look at introducing a temporary visa scheme to allow HGV drivers from the EU to fill vacancies.
246. Paperwork: The boss of lawnmower manufacturer Allets, says they have had “more paperwork in the last five months than they did in the previous five years, as far as exports are concerned” and the company has had to recruit an employee to look after the “hell” of post-Brexit red tape.
245. Christmas: The head of the Co-op supermarket said on Wednesday that current food shortages were the worst he had ever seen, while the boss of the Iceland frozen food chain warned that supply disruption could see Christmas “cancelled” for some families this year.
244. GB Stickers. From 31 September British cars in Europe must display a UK sticker instead of the old GB plate. This is said to be a sign of solidarity with Northern Ireland, which is not part of GB. The change has not been formally announced but was spotted as a footnote in UN regulations by the AA, which says it has 50,000 items of stock it will now need to change.
243. Shortages. The UK economy has been plunged into a supply chain crisis, with major retailers’ stock levels at their the lowest since 1983 as a result of worker shortages and transport disruption caused by Covid and Brexit. This is reported in The Guardian using retail industry tracking trends provided by the CBI.
242. SMEs. Nearly a third of medium-sized businesses plan to drastically change their operations to cope with the new post-Brexit UK-EU trading relationship, according to a report in CityAM. Research by accountancy firm BDO reveals 32 per cent of mid-sized businesses think they need to alter their business model to remain viable.
241. Students. Students due to start a university year in Spain, which has overtaken France as the top destination for UK students wanting a year abroad, face visa delays, with some unsure whether they will be able to take up their places this year. Brexit means they now need visas. Some have waited more than a month for a visa appointment.
240. Labour shortages. Avara Foods, a chicken and turkey supplier has told Sky News: “Our company is not currently experiencing any significant inconvenience regarding the ‘pingdemic’. Our concern is recruitment and filling vacancies when the UK workforce has been severely depleted as a result of Brexit; this is causing stress on UK supply chains in multiple sectors.
239. Loss of EU funding. Wales is being hardest hit by the post Brexit loss of EU Structural Funds, latest figures have shown. The £373 million lost by Wales is more than double that of Scotland (£125m) and most of the English regions that have previously received European Union support, making a mockery of the government’s ‘levelling up agenda,’ say Labour.
238. Brain drain. Nearly half of British business leaders fear losing the UK’s best talent abroad following the pandemic and Brexit, according to new research. Almost a third of respondents at mid- and junior-level said in the survey by MovePlan, a workplace change management provider, and headhunter Hanson Search, that they feel pessimistic about the UK’s chances to compete for the best talent and attract global businesses post Brexit.
237. Loss of EU funding. So called ‘Red Wall’ and other poorer areas of England will lose up to £1bn of development cash this year because of Brexit and despite promises to match EU grants. Just £220m is being made available across the whole of the UK for 2021-22 and no money has yet been handed out at all – even though the financial year is nearly halfway over.
236. Kent: Operation Brock, a temporary traffic management system designed to cope with queues of lorries heading for the EU, due to end by October 2021, is being made permanent, signalling the government expects further cross-Channel disruption.
235. Roaming charges: Vodafone, the UK’s third largest mobile phone provider, will reintroduce roaming charges of up to £2 a day for new and upgrading UK customers who travel in mainland Europe from next year. Customers travelling to Ireland will be exempt. EE and O2 have already announced changes to their roaming charges for European travel.
234. Immigration: The UK’s new net migration statistics show it has gone up to 313,000 over the past year to March, a rise of about one-third from 221,000 a year ago fuelled by 715,000 people who came to the UK over the previous 12 months. This is a four-year high of migration from non-EU countries, where the UK has tighter controls. Getting Brexit done has not seen immigration go down; it has driven it up.
233. Pets: The cost of an Animal Health Certificate issued by an Official Veterinarian, required in order to take your pet to an EU member state, is £180 takes ten days to obtain and is valid for four months. See also item 10 below.
232. Staff shortages: A garden centre in Plymouth is being forced to give away £100k worth of plants for free this weekend due to staff shortages. Team leader Matt Pollard says: “With the advent of Brexit and the departure of many European staff from the UK, we are suffering the same problem as many other businesses in the South West in finding suitable staff who want to work.”
231. Hospitality: More than 90,000 EU workers have left the UK in a mass Brexit exodus, according to The Daily Express. The hospitality sector took a huge hit over the past year due to the UK leaving the EU with the number of vacancies soaring by 342 per cent based on figures from the jobs site caterer.com.
230. Fishing: Government boasts about increased fishing quotas have been branded “codswallop” by industry experts. While quotas have increased the amount being caught has not, because the fish “don’t exist.” Terri Portmann, who advised MPs after Brexit, said: “Fishermen have been stitched up.”
229. Logistics: Brexit has damaged the UK’s position as a gateway to Europe for imported goods and increased red tape according to Robert Larkin, director of Med Freight Services near London. Goods destined for Europe, which once arrived in the UK, now get shipped directly to the EU.
228. Japanese Investment: Netherlands was the top destination for Japanese direct foreign investment into financial services in the years 2017-2020 with nearly US$12bn compared to net disinvestment in UK of just over US$4bn while jobs in UK Japanese financial services companies grew 9 percent over same period.
227. Standards: Components for cars and fridges could fall into a legal limbo as Brexit red tape holds up supply chains due to a lack of capacity for testing certain goods ahead of the January 1 2022 UKCA compliance deadline. Manufacturing is at risk from serious disruption because the government has failed to provide a suitable replacement for the EU’s CE safety standards system.
226. Clearing: UK financial regulators appear resigned to losing access to the EU market next year when a temporary equivalence agreement comes to an end. London based clearinghouses may have to offload EU banks and their clients, losing £millions, if not £billions, in revenue by cutting off overnight an entire bloc worth of swaps that need to be traded via a clearinghouse.
225. Travellers: From the end of 2022 UK travellers to EU member states will have to get authorisation and pay €7 to enter the EU’s Schengen Zone. The fee will cover multiple visits over a three years period. The EU have announced that its European Travel Information and Authorisation System (ETIAS) is on track.
224. Poultry. Soanes Poultry near Market Weighton has had to cut back its production by around ten per cent cent because of the twin impacts of the UK’s departure from the EU and the pandemic. The normal 100-strong workforce had shrunk by as much as 20 per cent, mainly because migrant workers from EU countries had gone back home after Brexit and had not returned.
223. Pumpkins. Freshlands Farm, based in Ramsey, Cambridgeshire, said it had lost tens of thousands of pumpkins as it had not been able to hire any workers to clear weeds from the fields. In just one field the company had lost half of the 90,000 pumpkins due to weeds.
222. Vegetables. One of the UK’s biggest vegetable producers says it is losing thousands of pounds a week and having to throw away food due to a labour shortage with Covid-19 pandemic and Brexit to blame. The workforce at Alfred G Pearce, based near King’s Lynn, Norfolk, is 20% to 30% down on previous years.
221. Ex pats. British expats in Cyprus are tasting the bitter side of the UK exiting the European Union as they fall victim to Brexit red tape. Lengthy bureaucratic procedures, increasingly difficult transportation, and higher taxes, topped up by coronavirus restrictions, has seen them deprived of their favourite UK made delicacies.
220. Trade. The North East England Chamber of Commerce has written to Boris Johnson to say that Brexit has led to a drop in exports as well as difficulties such as shortage of HGV drivers and increased costs related to added bureaucracy. They fear further damage if the UK deviates too far from EU regulations.
219. Trade. Seven months after Britain’s exit from the EU, the chilly effects on UK trade are being felt. Total exports of UK goods and services were down by 13% (£36 billion) and imports down 22% (£66 billion) for January to May 2021 compared to the same period in 2019, according to the Office for National Statistics (ONS).
218. M&S Sandwiches. The chairman of Marks & Spencer, Archie Norman, has said that exports of its popular gourmet sandwiches to its stores in France could stop altogether, if Brexit results in border challenges, the Financial Times has reported. Norman said that as its products are transported to France every day through the Channel Tunnel, additional border complications could see supply cut off.
217. Milk. Supermarkets could face a “summer of disruption” to milk deliveries if widespread driver shortages continue. Arla Foods, the UK’s biggest dairy supplier, was unable to deliver to 600 shops last Saturday due to dwindling driver numbers, amid fierce competition for specialist HGV drivers caused by a mix of Brexit, the pandemic and tax changes that have prompted some drivers to leave the trade.
216. Vets. The UK is facing a critical shortage of vets, set to intensify as new EU export rules kick in, industry insiders have warned. The number of EU vets arriving in Britain – which has traditionally plugged the shortfall in UK-trained vets – has dropped dramatically compounded by a surge in pet ownership in the past 18 months and Brexit rules demanding more vets to sign export health certificates.
215. Food shortages. Disruption to supplies in Scottish shops and restaurants are largely due to Brexit – not the “pingdemic” – say independent food retailers. They report that one major issue is hauliers from the EU have cut the UK from their routes. Some suppliers in European countries are also finding other buyers for their produce, because of the costs involved in post-Brexit paperwork.
214. Law & Justice: The EU has barred Britain from joining a European accord for recognising civil court rulings, a move that could bump up costs for individuals and small companies seeking legal redress abroad. Britain’s membership of the accord, known as the Lugano Convention, ended in December last year and an application to rejoin had been rejected (see 145 below).
213. The cost of Brexit: While £4.8bn has been allocated by the government to the new Levelling Up Fund, some £12bn has been spent on the logistics of being out of the EU, plus an estimated £40bn in lost trade with Europe since the end of January and £130bn wasted on Brexit from 2016 to 2020, means more than 38 times more being spent on Brexit than levelling up.
212. HGV driver shortage: A leading haulage group based in Wales has pleaded for help over the worst driver shortage the company has seen in its 50-year history, and blames Brexit. “The driver situation is in crisis, it’s a problem that has been smoking for a number of years and now we are on fire,” said Ian Owen, managing director of Owens Group.
211. The cost of Brexit: A new analysis by The Centre for European Reform estimates that leaving the single market and customs union at the end of December 2020 had reduced UK trade by £10bn, or 13.5 percent, in May. The think tank said this was on top of a £8bn, or 10 percent, hit to trade between the June 2016 referendum and splintering away from the single market.
210. EU workers: A recruitment agency in Leicester warns of a big shortfall in EU workers coming to the UK. Ed Vigars operations director at Encore Personnel, said, ‘EU workers have left and aren’t returning … we’ve never seen anything like this in 20 years.’ Warnings include suggestions that 60 percent of vegetable packers have said they’re leaving or have already left.
209. Skiing: Brexit threatens not only thousands of resort jobs, but the future of British ski holidays according to an article in The Telegraph. UK travel companies who once employed thousands of UK staff are no longer accepting applications from British citizens, unless they have a dual passport or a right to reside in an EU country.
208. Classic cars: A report by insurance company Hagerty reveals the extra bureaucracy and paperwork due to Brexit is expected to hinder business. They highlight the Access/Temporary Access Carnet, a passport for goods that guarantees items will return from the EU which involves a 40 per cent returnable bond, means a car worth £1m will need an upfront payment of £400,000.
207. Hauliers: A survey by Haulage Exchange, a logistics software company, shows over half of British haulage firms have already made or are considering moving some operations into the EU due to a “perfect storm” of post-Brexit red tape impacts and driver shortages still hitting the sector.
206. Charity sector: The White Rose Initiative, a small Huddersfield charity, is facing a devastating legal battle that could lead it to ruin after being slapped with a ‘Brexit bill’ for shipping aid to Romania. Their hauliers have demanded an extra £4,000 on top of the agreed £2,600 bill.
205. Takeaways: Research by online food delivery service Foodhub has revealed takeaway restaurants across the country have been experiencing rising costs of ingredients like flour, chips, chicken and cheese and delays at ports because of Brexit.
204. Skiing trips: School skiing trips that rely on British personnel to staff their EU winter camps could be wiped out by Brexit after it emerged they are facing the same obstacles to travel as the music and theatre sectors, according to The Guardian.
203. Haribo: The German confectionery giant, makers of Starmix, Goldbears and Tangfastic, say they are “experiencing challenges” due to a shortage of lorry drivers which is affecting deliveries to all major supermarkets, including Tesco, Sainsbury’s and Asda, as well as other shops.
202. Trade: Flour exports from Britain to Ireland have fallen sharply. The National Association of British and Irish Millers (Nabim) estimate that imports of British flour to the Republic have fallen by up to 25 percent since the start of this year, replaced by alternative suppliers in NI, France and Germany.
201. Horizon: UK scientists have missed out on £1.5bn in Horizon 2020 funds since the country voted to leave the EU in 2016. Campaigners say that the figures reveal the extent to which Brexit uncertainty damaged collaborations between UK researchers and their colleagues across Europe.
200. Red tape cost: British businesses will spend £7.5bn a year handling customs declarations — as much as they would have done under a no-deal Brexit, Jim Harra, chief executive of HM Revenue & Customs (HMRC), told MPs. The number of customs forms needed to trade with the European Union under the Brexit deal “is not materially different from a no-deal situation”.
199. Trade: Almost a third of British companies that trade with the EU have suffered a decline or loss of business since post-Brexit rules took effect, according to a survey conducted for the FT. The survey, carried out by the Institute of Directors, also found that 17 per cent of UK companies that previously traded with the EU have stopped — either temporarily or permanently.
198. Food shortages: Worsening supermarket food shortages are now “inevitable” in the coming weeks as labour shortages across the food supply chain approach crunch point, according to The Grocer. Many of the factors fuelling the driver shortages are now causing problems in other sectors: EU workers returning home due to Brexit and covid, new visas requirements and the winding down of furlough placing a renewed strain on the labour pool.
197. Labour shortages: A shortage of building labour is threatening construction work. Since the referendum there has been an exodus of skilled EU workers from the UK, felt most keenly in London and the problem could get worse during the summer, when many remaining EU employees intend to take extended holidays back home.
196. Small orders shipped to the EU: From 1 July, the EU will remove the €22 threshold for duties on parcels imported from non-EU origins which will then require customs clearance, payment of VAT and, depending on national thresholds, customs duties. This comes after protests from EU-based merchants, over a flood of cheap online purchases from China putting them at a competitive disadvantage.
195. Irish trade: A collapse in British exports to Ireland since Brexit has handed Dublin an extraordinary trade surplus with London. The Irish government say red tape explains a €2bn plunge in the value of goods sales – 47.6 percent in the first quarter of this year, compared with the start of 2020. According to ONS figures the UK has previously recorded an overall trade surplus with Ireland every year since 1999.
194. Exporters state aid: UK exporters have been given more than £12bn in state financial support to keep Britain trading with the rest of the world through Brexit and the pandemic. UK Export Finance, provided British businesses with the highest level of financial support in 30 years in the year to the end of March, almost treble the amount from 2019-20.
193. Roaming charges: One of the UK’s biggest mobile phone networks has announced roaming charges for Britons travelling to the EU. Customers of O2 have been told they will be billed £3.50 for every gigabyte (GB) of data used above a new limit of 25GB, from August. Roaming charges were scrapped by the EU in 2017.
192. Dover: UK Border Force have warned that new passport checks required by French authorities could reduce the “flow rate” through Dover’s passport lanes to “50 people per hour, per lane” — about a tenth of pre-Brexit flows, creating disruption and long tailbacks. Dover currently has just five passport lanes and on a busy holiday weekend can expect up to 20,000 passenger vehicles per day.
191. Film and TV: The EU are to launch a proposal to reduce the “disproportionate” amount of British programming on European television, threatening the near £500m of annual UK television and video-on-demand sales into the EU market, according to The Guardian.
190. Broadcasters: 250 broadcasting licences migrated from the UK to the EU due to Brexit. Half of the channels available in Europe outside their country of origin fell under the jurisdiction of the United Kingdom in 2018, declining to 10 percent at the end of 2020. Over a quarter of international channels in Europe are now licensed in the Netherlands, with a fifth licensed in Luxembourg.
189. Horse Racing: Brexit has left British breeders and trainers mired in paperwork. The number of British trained runners in races in the EU fell by 67 percent, compared to a 23 percent reduction in races across the rest of the world. The British Horseracing Authority has called for red tape to be cut.
188. Poppies: The Royal British Legion has been forced to abandon sales of poppies online in the European Union because of the extra costs and bureaucracy it faces following Brexit. Its decision to stop selling to customers in the EU coincides with exporters reporting large falls in sales to the bloc because of new taxes and paperwork.
187. Meat production: The UK faces shortages of British-produced meat as problems with recruitment continue. EU migrants have been returning home due to Brexit effects including a weaker pound, a trend exacerbated by the coronavirus crisis, the British Poultry Council (BPC) said as the poultry industry reported a 10 percent fall in the number of birds being slaughtered for meat in recent weeks.
186. Food exports: UK food and drink exports to the European Union almost halved in the first three months of the year, compared to the same period in 2020 according to the Food and Drink Federation (FDF). Figures show EU sales dropped by 47 percent. The FDF say the decline was largely due to changes in the UK’s trading relationships, but said the pandemic was also a factor.
185. Fresh produce being dumped: The shortage of HGV drivers (see 179 below) is causing perfectly good, graded and packed fresh produce to be dumped or rot in cold stores, waiting for transport while supermarket shelves and restaurant plates are going empty. This is according to Nationwide Produce Ltd, a grower, supplier and importer of a range of fresh fruit and vegetables from around the World.
184. Manufacturing: British manufacturers are likely to have less protection against cheap imports from the UK’s post-Brexit trade regulator than they had under the EU regime, The Trade Remedies Authority (TRA) has said. They have already scrapped “safeguard” tariffs in more than 50 areas since the UK left the EU, Oliver Griffiths, its chief executive, told the Financial Times.
183. Shortages: A combination of problems – including the burden of Brexit paperwork, has increased competition for shipping container space and delayed delivery times resulting in a shortage of building supplies, garden furniture and packaging materials.
182. Fruit pickers: Brexit has led ‘to a 90% drop’ in the number of foreign workers coming to the UK to work on farms in the summer. Stephen Taylor of Winterwood Farms ltd says, “95 per cent of all fruit and produce picked and packaged in this country is done by eastern Europeans. We are not talking about a few tens of thousands, we are talking hundreds of thousands of people less to work in the UK. That’s a massive hole.”
181. Customs: Concerns are being raised about the UK’s capacity to process millions of delayed customs declarations on EU goods imported into the UK since 1 January. The grace period ends 1 July with the first delayed declarations due on 25 June. UK Customs is said to be “looking down the barrel of a potential nightmare” with a risk that many importers will be unable to find customs brokers or will fail to declare goods, meaning HMRC will lose much needed customs revenue.
180. Timber imports: According to the Timber Trade Federation, 52 per cent of UK timber imports come from the EU. Before 2021, just 10 per cent required due diligence to ensure negligible risk of illegal timber entering the UK market from non EU countries. As a result of Brexit, this will now rise to 62 per cent, presenting the UK industry with substantial challenges, say the TTF.
179. HGV Drivers: The Road Haulage Association says the UK has lost 15,000 drivers since Brexit. Experts warn that this will lead to a shortage of everyday products on supermarket shelves by the autumn and add to pressure on prices.
178. Financial service: EU regulators have warned City of London firms against using a tactic known as chaperoning to avoid post-Brexit red tape. Ireland’s central bank said it “expects that firms are adequately resourced” which may require more jobs and funds to be transferred to EU member states.
177. Food imports: Imports of fruit and vegetables from Spain to Britain shot up by six percent in the first quarter, compared to the same period in 2020 according to The Daily Express. The value of the Spanish produce imported into the UK reached £580million from January to April based on data supplied by the Spanish tax authority.
176. Food exporters: UK food companies are set to permanently cut ties with EU customers due to Brexit. Exporters are increasingly concerned that the second half of 2021 will see short-term Brexit disruption evolve into the permanent loss of certain EU markets, according to The Grocer magazine.
175. Eurostar: The Daily Mail say Britons travelling to France via Eurostar are being turned away for not having a ‘good enough reason’ after a rule change to block the spread of the Indian covid variant. From 2 June, Britons must give a ‘compelling reason’ for their trip. As a third country, UK citizens can only travel to France for reasons such as bereavement or childcare. The rule does not apply to French or other EU citizens.
174. Food prices: Shoppers face higher grocery bills as more EU red tape looms according to The Telegraph. Higher shipping and raw materials costs and EU red tape threaten consumers’ pockets, the British Retail Consortium have said. More Brexit checks from October are expected to force retailers to pass on further additional costs to shoppers.
173. Services exports: Researchers at Aston University have calculated that Brexit shrank UK services exports by more than £110bn between 2016 and 2019. They claim exports fell by a cumulative £113 billion compared to if the UK had not voted to quit the EU in June 2016.
172. Illegal immigrants: German & French governments confirm there will be no bilateral negotiations with Britain on returning asylum seekers who enter the UK. The EU Commission also confirms that ‘for the moment their focus is on implementing TCA’ – which does ‘not include provisions on asylum and return’ and they are ‘not considering pursuing further negotiations to complement TCA at the EU level’.
171. Norway fishing: After talks with Norway aimed at a fishing agreement collapsed in April, Norway have announced that licences for British vessels had stopped being issued until a new deal is agreed. Fiskebåt a fishing industry trade association claimed the UK was trying to “send the bill for Brexit to Norway and Norwegian fishermen” by taking a hard line.
170. Exports: Industrial pump manufacturer Verder Ltd told the UK Trade and Business Commission that packages are taking up to 68 days to get into Europe. Seventy-one deliveries have been lost with a value of around £50,000 since 1 January. “We see no improvement that Brexit offers, only a massive loss of business with our nearest market.”
169. M&S: Marks & Spencer’s financial results to 3 April 2021 confirm the new trade deal with the EU which came into operation in January has cost an additional £29m in administration and £13m in tariffs so far, £27-33m of which relate to operations in Ireland. M&S say they are reviewing business models, local sourcing and re-routing product through European hubs.
168. Exports to Ireland: Exports from Britain to Ireland fell by just over 47 percent in the first quarter of the year. It was the biggest percentage fall in exports to any of the UK’s top export countries recorded by the Office for National Statistics, Britain’s official statistics agency.
167. British homeowners in France: UK citizens who sell a French property must now use a fiscal representative for capital gains formalities on sales over €150,000 – the same as for all non-EU residents. These stricter post-Brexit rules are set to cost one couple, unable to provide all the correct documentation, an extra tax bill of €150,000.
166. Trade: Trade flows between the UK and EU slumped by more than a fifth in the first quarter of the year while trade with the rest of the world dropped by only 0.4 percent. But, say the Office for National Statistics, it is still too early to say how much was down to Brexit.
165. NI Food: Marks & Spencer is to start buying more food from EU states as it battles “obscene” border disruption in Northern Ireland. M&S plans to source more goods from companies on the continent as well as from Ireland and Northern Ireland, after struggling to get English goods across the Irish Sea, according to the Telegraph.
164. Steel: Britain’s steel industry faces a “hammer blow” that risks damaging the sector. A preliminary decision by the DIT to remove import “safeguards”, designed to protect domestic producers from a flood of cheap imports, needs to be “urgently rethought”, according to lobby group UK Steel. They warn it will have an adverse impact on steel manufacturers in Wales and north-east England.
163. Food exports: Milk and cream exports to the EU were down 96 percent in February. Cheese exports were down 65 percent and chicken and beef sales also down by nearly 80 percent – all year-on-year figures. The Food and Drink Federation says Brexit has cost British exporters more than £1.1bn since the start of the year.
162. Travellers: UK visitors to France and Spain may be asked to show proof of their accommodation – potentially including an official certificate, obtained in advance, if they are staying with friends or family – once Covid restrictions are lifted. Non-EU nationals who do not need a visa should submit an attestation d’accueil (accommodation certificate), a process taking up to a month.
161. Exports to Ireland: Data from the Irish Central Statistics Office for March shows a 46 percent spike to more than €3.1bn in goods imported from the EU, and a corresponding slump in British imports to the Republic, which fell by almost a third to less than €1bn.
160. Financial sector: The City of London’s “Golden Age” as Europe’s financial capital is over following Brexit, NatWest chairman Howard Davies said today. The City has been largely cut off from the EU since Britain’s full departure last December, with bankers and City officials not expecting any direct access to the bloc anytime soon.
159. Farming: NFU President Minette Batters says it’s clear that negotiators from Australia and New Zealand are sticking to their hardline demands for the complete removal of tariffs on all their exports to the UK. This, she adds, would make life unbearable for small British family farms competing with imports produced in a very different manner.
158. Musicians: Research by the Incorporated Society of Musicians found that 94 percent of respondents had been negatively affected by the UK’s post-Brexit trade deal with the EU. The first 100 days have been a “disaster” for the British music industry and the government has made almost no progress in addressing problems raised by visas, customs and other controls the Financial Times report.
157. UK grown fresh fruit: Supermarkets face post-Brexit fruit and veg scarcity thanks to shortage of skilled pickers, says The Mirror. The government’s failure to allow in enough EU workers and new rules restricting visas for seasonal pickers are expected to leave tonnes of crops to rot, while shelves lie empty.
156. Retirees: Dreams of retiring to Europe have been dashed for many says The Telegraph. Bureaucratic ‘complications’, have forced retirees to reconsider plans, amid worries about losing state pension rights and access to healthcare. Brits who relocate to the EU after living previously in Australia, Canada or New Zealand could have their state pensions dramatically slashed.
155. Construction: A combination of covid and Brexit has caused a crisis for the UK construction industry with shortages, delays and soaring prices affecting projects across the country. Timber costs 80 percent more than in November, steel joists are up by more than 80 percent. Aluminium is up by about a quarter, copper by 40 percent, plastics by 60 percent and paints by about a third.
154. Silver and jewellery: British silversmiths are being frustrated trying to sell silver and gold into the European Union after the Brexit trade deal failed to recognise the UK’s centuries-old hallmarks. The Telegraph claims hallmarking was overlooked in the Brexit trade deal and says the problems also affect jewellery.
153. Foreign direct investment: According to data from fDi Markets, a Financial Times-owned company tracking foreign investments, in the five years to March 2021, the number of FDI projects into the UK was up only 12 percent compared with the previous five years, well below the 33 percent expansion seen across EU countries.
152. UK economy: Britain’s economy is on track to suffer more than £700bn of lost output caused by Covid-19 and Brexit, according to The National Institute of Economic and Social Research.
151. Illegal immigrants: The Home Office has been unable to persuade any European state to sign up to Priti Patel’s scheme for deporting migrants who enter the UK illegally to safe countries such as “France and other EU countries.” The UN’s refugee agency is expected to conclude her plans infringe international legislation and are unworkable.
150. Financials: The City of London lost £2.3tn ($3.3tn) of its lucrative derivatives trading business in March alone, with Wall Street trading platforms gaining the most from Brexit. According to Bloomberg, US swap-execution facilities took market share in trades in euros, pounds and dollars at London’s expense.
149. Freeports: The government has admitted companies located in new freeports will be unable to export tariff free to 23 countries including Canada, Norway, Switzerland and Singapore, due to clauses in the free trade agreements recently signed. Manufacturers in freeport-type zones are specifically prohibited from benefiting from the new deals.
148. HGV drivers: An exodus of EU lorry drivers from the UK since Brexit has left the British haulage and logistics industry facing an acute staff shortage and a looming crisis for industrial and retail deliveries, the sector has warned. Freight companies say unless urgent steps were taken to address shortages, strains now visible within the industry would become evident to the public by the end of the summer.
147. Trade: A study by the London School of Economics drawing on real-time business data from the CBI up to April, shows that more than three out of five UK firms (61 percent) are reporting difficulties due to Brexit, resulting in rising costs, higher prices for consumers and reduced competitiveness.
146. Food exports: A British-owned supermarket chain supplying expats in Belgium was forced to close two stores last weekend (Whitsun), unable to obtain supplies from the UK. Stonemanor hasn’t had a delivery since before the New Year and is now turning to Irish suppliers due to difficulties getting goods from Britain since Brexit.
145. Law and justice: The EU Commission has recommended that the EU does not give consent for the UK to join the Lugano Convention, an international legal pact that allows legal judgements to be enforced across borders. All EU countries plus Norway, Switzerland and Iceland are members. As a third country the UK must fall back on the Hague convention.
144. Pig farmers: Pig producers still cannot export breeding stock to Europe and in February sales of pig meat to the EU, were down 80 percent by value. High feed prices and low pig prices have led to significant losses with the AHDB (Agriculture and Horticulture Development Board) reporting the average producer was already losing £25 on every finished pig sold in the fourth quarter of 2020.
143. Fishing: The UK has failed to reach fishing access deal with Norway which means the British distant-waters fleet have no rights to fish in Norwegian sub-Arctic waters in 2021. UK Fisheries, owners of the super trawler Kirkella, employs around 100 crewmen in Hull, but will have to decide what presence it can have in Hull without viable fishing opportunities in its traditional grounds.
142. Food exports: Sales of milk and cream to the EU are down by 96 percent – and chicken and beef by nearly 80 percent – because of Brexit. Overall, the trade barriers erected in Boris Johnson’s deal have cost exporters more than £1.1bn since the start of the year, the Food and Drink Federation says.
141. Wine exports: WineGB, the trade association for English and Welsh wine, estimates that new customs paperwork and labelling requirements adds up £5 to the cost of a bottle of English sparkling wine at retail in Europe. Shipping costs to Europe have also soared from £140 per pallet to £500-£700.
140. Food exports to the EU: The UK food industry warns that new post-Brexit red tape which came into effect this week (April 2021) will increase export paperwork by a third and make some sales to Europe unviable. The EU has introduced a wave of new requirements for composite (multi-ingredient) food products entering the bloc from third countries like the UK.
139. Inward investment: An academic report in the Journal Science Direct shows that by March 2019 the number of EU27 investment projects in the UK since the referendum has declined by around 9 percent while outward investment transactions from the UK into the EU27 rose by 17 percent, illustrating that being a smaller economy than the EU leaves the UK more exposed to the costs of economic disintegration.
138. Used cars: Since the UK became a third country on 1 January, used cars imported into Ireland from Britain that were originally manufactured in the EU or another country outside the EU, must have VAT of 21 percent paid on the invoice price. Up until last year, around 100,000 used cars each year were imported into Ireland from Britain, a market that may no longer be viable.
137. Drugs: UK pharmaceutical companies making non-branded drugs have already started to withdraw medicines from the Northern Ireland market because they cannot afford to meet the costs of new post-Brexit red tape, according to industry leaders and reported by the Financial Times.
136. Aerospace industry: Four months after the trade deal was struck, aerospace firms are still struggling to secure EU signoff for British-designed parts and approval for maintenance work on planes registered in the bloc. At the same time, the UK Civil Aviation Authority is granting automatic recognition to rival European players.
135. Universities: Applications for undergraduate courses starting in 2021/22, from EU member states, the UK’s number one overseas student market, have plummeted by 40 percent but it is Brexit and not Covid-19 that is to blame according to University World News.
134. Pigeons: Pigeon fanciers say new Brexit rules for long-distance European races could “kill” their sport. Under EU rules due to become law next week, UK birds must be detained for three weeks before they can be released in France for trans-Channel races, leading to fears that they would be unfit to race after being cooped up for so long.
133. Banks: The New Financial think tank said on 16 April that more than 400 financial firms in Britain have shifted activities, staff and a combined trillion pounds in assets to hubs in the EU due to Brexit. They believe even this is an underestimate and “expect the numbers to increase over time: we are only at the end of the beginning of Brexit”.
132. Exports: The EU’s statistics office Eurostat said EU imports from Britain fell 47 percent year-on-year in January-February to €16.6bn while exports to the UK declined only 20.2 percent to €39.8bn. As a result, the EU’s trade surplus with Britain rose to €23.2bn in the first two months after Britain’s Brexit transition period expired.
131. Import charges: A survey conducted by consumer champion Which? found that UK consumers buying products from retailers based in the EU are being hit with unexpected delivery fees of up to £300. More than 40 percent of those who ordered products online in the first six weeks of the year experienced issues with their purchases. The consumer group polled 2,000 people.
130. Exports: The British Chambers of Commerce’s Trade Confidence Outlook in survey of more than 2,900 UK exporters revealed that the percentage of firms reporting decreased export sales has increased to 41%, up from 38% in the previous quarter.
129. Steel: British steel exports to the EU have plunged by a third in a fresh blow to the industry. Shipments from the UK to the bloc dipped to just under 420,000 tonnes in the first three months of the year, as the sector grappled with the prime minister’s Brexit deal, reports the Daily Mirror.
128. Nematodes: These parasitic worms are used by amateur gardeners and commercial growers across Europe as a natural pest-control solution, but since Brexit not a single shipment to Europe from a BASF plant in Littlehampton has been possible due to bureaucratic hurdles according to a report in the FT.
127. Car spare parts: Delays and surcharges as a result of Brexit are causing havoc in the vehicle aftersales industry, with independent garages refusing to work on some vehicles and cars stuck in workshops across the country. An engine ordered in November 2020 has been marooned at Felixstowe docks since the first week of January, with the vehicle stuck in a busy garage in East Sussex.
126. Antiques: Dealers fear cross border trade in antiques will be “decimated” by paperwork after Brexit. HMRC said: “There is no general relief from import charges for second hand goods, meaning customs declarations will be required and import taxes will be due unless any specific relief applies.”
125. NI trade: Haulage firms estimate that the cost of shipping a single pallet of goods to Northern Ireland from Great Britain has increase from £100 before Brexit to between £150 and £450 to cover the new administration costs alone due to the sea border arrangements set out in the NI protocol.
124. Extradition: Ten EU member states have said they will no longer extradite their nationals to the UK following Brexit. Countries including France, Germany and Poland will refuse to allow the extradition of their nationals. Two more – Austria and the Czech Republic – will only hand over suspects to the UK with their consent.
123. UK immigrants to Spain: Spain is expecting to deport 500 UK citizens within days, after the first 90-day limit for non-residents expired. UK immigrants who were living in Spain under EU freedom of movement rights and failed to secure permanent residency in time are being forced to return to the UK, some in tears declaring “the dream is over”.
122. Sausages: A British company whose sausages are made in Germany from British pork has switched to sourcing from Denmark after two attempts since January to send British produce failed. Helen Browning’s Organic says it has been forced to drop its support for UK farmers and switch to Danish suppliers.
121. Meat: British meat companies, in a new report, say systemic weaknesses in the current export system and mountains of red tape point to a potential permanent loss of trade of between 20 and 50 percent.
120. Flowers: Kevin Haynes, horticulture manager at Taylors Bulbs, Holbeach said he expects the firm to harvest around a third of their 2.5 million daffodil harvest this year due to a lack of pickers. In a normal year Taylors employ around 150 pickers but this year they have just 30.
119. Flying: From late June this year some GPS-based procedures known as LPV (localiser precision approach with vertical guidance) will no longer be available following the loss of the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service.
118. Credit cards: Visa is to raise its “interchange fees” — a levy charged on every debit or credit card payment using its network — for cross-border transactions between the UK and EU. Brussels capped interchange fees for all transactions inside the EU in 2015, the UK’s departure on 1 January means the limit no longer applies to payments between Britain and the bloc.
117. Aviation: The chief executive of Jota Aviation says the trade deal has given them the worst of both worlds. Increased competition domestically while cutting us off from Europe. EU airlines can object to UK carriers obtaining permits to fly to Europe, while the UK government refuses to allow the same right to object for UK operators against EU airlines.
116. Universities: Universities UK, in a letter to the prime minister, says thousands of jobs could be lost if UK research and innovation has to pay the annual £1bn bill, previously covered by EU membership fees, to stay in Horizon Europe.
115. Retailers: Two in three retailers are having difficulty importing products – from barbecues, spring bulbs and patio furniture, to sofas and laptops. The problems have been highlighted in a survey of 10,000 retailers by e-commerce experts EKM. Port congestion and Brexit red tape are being blamed according to the Daily Mail.
114. Hauliers: The chief executive of a Hull-based haulage firm claims new rules that only allow drivers to spend up to 90 days in the Schengen zone during any 180-day period, mean drivers are restricted to around 50 per cent of their previous time in Europe. EU drivers work under the same rules but can be in and out of the UK in two days while a journey to Italy could take eight days, resulting in fewer allowable trips.
113. Unfairness: The government’s recently announced delay to the date when import controls will apply to EU goods would add “ongoing unfairness” to UK exporters facing EU trade barriers while EU firms exporting to the UK benefit from unfettered access until January 2022, says Shane Brennan, chief executive of the Cold Chain Federation.
112. Japanese firms: The number of Japanese firms based in the UK fell 12 percent between 2014 and 2019, from 1,084 to 951 in contrast to a growing number of Japanese firms situating in the EU27. Between 2014 and 2019 the number of firms in the Netherlands grew by 67 percent, according to Rudling Consulting. There were also increases in Germany, France and Italy of 11, 7 and 53 percent respectively.
111. Food exports: New EU legislation covering multi-ingredient products, ranging from chocolate bars to curry sauces, is expected to increase the volume of UK export health certificates required to send food to the EU by up to one-third, industry associations warn.
110. Construction: The Office for Budget Responsibility has warned that thousands of overseas workers who have left the UK in the past year will not return, and post-Brexit immigration rules could put them off coming back, prompting fears of a “major skills shortage” from construction businesses and that plans to build 300,000 homes per year may be in jeopardy.
109. e-Commerce: Barriers to trade caused by Boris Johnson’s Brexit deal are set to cost UK e-commerce importers more than £5bn a year, a new report by international company ParcelHero has warned.
108. Northern Ireland: The Loyalist Communities Council say it has temporarily withdrawn support for the Good Friday Agreement because of concerns about the Northern Ireland Protocol. The group, which includes representatives of loyalist paramilitaries, has written to the prime minister according to the BBC.
107. Travel reps: Thousands of seasonal staff employed by the British travel industry who previously based themselves in EU resorts are now at risk of losing their jobs because of work permits required after Brexit, the sector is warning.
106. Universities: UK universities are bracing for a difficult autumn when tuition fees for students from the EU will increase dramatically following Brexit. From September 2021, EU students will be charged fees at the international student rate, raising fears it will deter many from coming to the UK and hitting university income.
105. Flower growers: Under EU rules, flowers like snowdrops and rhododendrons cannot be exported from the UK (or any third country, except Switzerland who have negotiated an agreement) if it has touched British soil, the Mail on Sunday reports. One grower expects to lose in the region of £100,000 this year and in subsequent years.
104. Paint: Teal & Mackrill, a specialist paint manufacturer in Hull, is concerned about its future as the growing cost of regulatory burdens on chemicals after Brexit may mean they are unable to obtain some of the additives that make their paints distinctive. Geoff Mackrill says “The worry is that some of those materials that we use, may become unavailable because of those costs”.
103. Cycling: Brexit is negatively affecting the careers of British professional cyclists who are now restricted to only 90 days of travel every 180 days within the EU. That barely covers the pre-season training camps, let alone enough time to be able to race up to the Giro d’Italia in May or the Tour de France in August.
102. Clearing: Brussels will allow US clearing houses to operate throughout the EU in what could be a blow to the City of London’s largest clearing agencies. The move to allow American competitors to operate in the EU will be seen as a move by Brussels to clear the way to locking out the UK’s clearing houses next year.
101. Exporters: Almost one-in-four British exporters are planning on reducing their activity in the EU or eliminating it out entirely post-Brexit, according to a new survey from the British Chambers of Commerce / Moneycorp showed that 23 percent want to “either reduce their activity in the EU or have no activity at all” in the next 12 months.
100. Northern Ireland: A survey of 1,000 GB retailers has found that almost two thirds of them plan to stop selling to Northern Ireland within two months because of the Irish Sea border.
99. Pet food: The UK’s pet food industry is struggling to export to the EU because of red tape, vet shortages and hauliers refusing to accept animal-based products in case they are stopped at the border. By mid-February, just a third managed to export to the EU in 2021.
98. Language students: Thousands of UK students hoping to spend the year abroad are caught in limbo after facing major disruption to their travel plans due to post-Brexit red tape and costs, in respect of which universities say they received inadequate guidance from the government.
97. Shellfish: Fishermen in Cornwall say some are at risk of losing their homes because of an overnight ban on exporting their product to the EU.
96. Flower industry: UK growers of flowers and ornamental plants have warned that millions of blooms will go unharvested this year after the multibillion-pound sector was not included in a scheme to admit overseas farm workers after Brexit.
95. Trees: Orders for almost 100,000 trees have been cancelled by Northern Ireland buyers because of a post-Brexit ban on the plants being moved from Britain, according to the Guardian. The Woodland Trust alone has cancelled an order for 22,000 trees destined for schools and communities as part of a Northern Ireland greening project.
94. Eggs: Ungraded eggs, second-class eggs that aren’t high enough quality to be sent to the packing center for grading, can no longer be exported to the EU. These unmarked industrial eggs are used for fish-bait farming, rendered, or used in composting.
93. Processed Animal Protein: Farmers have been hit by the loss of EU markets for animal by-products according to the British Meat Processors Association. Rendered meat by-products going into the EU “must have been processed in a region considered as posing a negligible” risk for BSE and “At the moment, [Great Britain] does not have negligible BSE risk”.
92. Trade: There are reports that selling into the single market is becoming financially unviable for some companies. Director of trade facilitation at the British Chambers of Commerce Liam Smyth said the extra time and cost of trade with Europe had resulted in an exodus of British business from the market, which he feared would increase as time goes on.
91. Animal feed: Peter Kersch, managing director of World Feeds, Thorne, Doncaster says his business is being hampered by new red tape brought in in the wake of the UK’s Brexit deal with the EU and fears it will hit hard. Mr Kersch says “We can’t get anyone to transport our products into the EU” due to so many vehicles and consignments tied up awaiting clearance for new red tape and documentation.
90. Silk Industry: Bennett Silks in Stockport says clients on the continent will not accept the extra customs charges and duties, and will simply switch to using EU-based competitors. “Our only chance to retain EU business is to create a distribution centre in France”, which will have the effect of taking jobs and economic activity away from North-West England.
89. Distilleries: Many small UK gin and whisky distillers and suppliers are struggling to ship products to EU customers under new post-Brexit trading rules, the industry has warned. Multiple distilleries told the Financial Times that confusion over paperwork for alcohol shipments was making it next to impossible to ship single pallets of spirits to the EU.
88. Airlines: British cargo, charter and leasing airlines are losing contracts and business to EU rivals. The carriers say they are severely disadvantaged under the new trade regime because the rules allow greater freedom and flexibility for EU-owned airlines to fly in the UK than UK carriers have in Europe.
87. Duty Free limit: Travellers returning from the EU will be restricted to 18 litres of wine (24 bottles), 42 litres of beer and 4 litres of spirits or liqueurs over 22 percent in alcohol – plus up to 200 cigarettes.
86. Chemicals industry: 25 business heads have written a letter to the government expressing concerns about current plans for a new £1bn system of chemicals regulation, and warned it would “hit UK industry hard across a range of manufacturing sectors”.
85. Tax avoidance: On 31 December 2020 the UK repealed the existing law on tax transparency and replaced it by implementing the less strict OECD rules, which may lead to greater tax avoidance and lower tax revenues.
84. Trade deal scrutiny: The government has rejected a Lords amendment to the Trade Bill giving MPs greater scrutiny of trade deals. It means MPs will have less power than British MEPs had in the European parliament for all EU trade deals when the UK was an EU member state.
83. Food exports: Ian Wright, chief executive of the Food and Drink Federation (FDF), has told MPs on the International Trade Select Committee that food exports to Europe have been cut by at least half since the start of January despite the deal.
82. Charity sector: Since January, exports to the EU from ECS Textiles in North Shields have ground to a halt due to border delays, piles of paperwork and confusion over post-Brexit rules, costing charities thousands of pounds in lost donations each week.
81. Trade diversion: A Belfast deli owner has told the BBC they are now bringing a lot of our stuff in from the Republic of Ireland saying, “We can place an order on Monday and it will be here on Tuesday morning. There’s nothing to fill in – not a form, nothing at all”.
80. Overseas payments: UK residents trying to send money to banks and companies in Europe are having their transactions blocked as Brexit continues to cause hurdles and headaches. Those trying to send money abroad now have to provide an additional layer of detail when making payments as the UK is now classed as a third country under European payment rules.
79. Au pairs: Au pairs have been classified as skilled workers under new UK immigration rules and will now require a salary of at least £20,480 to obtain a work permit compared to the £100 per week plus free accommodation before Brexit, making the hiring of an au pair unaffordable for many people.
78. Motorsports: Motorsport UK says an ATA carnet will now be required to temporarily move motorsport vehicles and equipment into the EU. The carnets cost £330+VAT plus a refundable deposit of 40 percent of the vehicle’s value or a non-refundable insurance premium to cover the 40 percent proportion of the value.
77. Bees: A beekeeper trying to bring 15 million bees into the UK says he has been told they may be seized because of post-Brexit laws. Only queen bees can now be imported, rather than colonies and packages of bees. However, there is confusion over whether bees can be brought in via Northern Ireland. DEFRA is working with the devolved administrations to find a solution.
76. Investment funds: London’s smaller investment managers, who have not set up subsidiaries in the EU are struggling to negotiate new post-Brexit trading arrangements in order to continue serving European clients. Smaller funds have been hit disproportionately hard by the omission of financial services from the Brexit trade talks because they have been less able to prepare contingency plans.
75. Fashion: The UK’s £35bn fashion and textile industry is facing “decimation” as a result of red tape and travel restrictions thrown up by the new post-Brexit trade agreement with the EU.
74. Theatres: UK theatres have called for urgent clarification over post-Brexit touring provisions, warning of a major threat to the country’s previously thriving performing arts sector. They say, “even with a Brexit deal, significant obstacles have emerged that threaten our world-leading performing arts exports and imports, which also puts their economic, social and cultural contributions at risk”.
73. Shellfish: The European Union has told the UK shellfish industry that thousands of tonnes of oyster, mussel, clam, cockle and scallop exports are banned from the bloc indefinitely. British fishers, who had been told by government to expect the ban to last until spring, are warning this will be a fatal blow to their businesses. (See also item 25)
72. Ireland: Goods shipments from Britain to Ireland halved in the first month of post-Brexit trade. Despite the exceptionally low inflow of goods from Britain, hauliers were required to provide 760,000 import declarations of various types — more than 43 certified documents per truck — to gain entry to Ireland.
71. Driving: France is allowing UK residents using UK driving licences to continue to do so until the end of this year, but afterwards when the UK licence expires, as photocard ones do after 10 years or when the driver reaches 70 and every three years after, it cannot be renewed to a French address and cannot be swapped for a French licence. The only legal options will be to stop driving or take a French driving test.
70. Steel: Some steel products exported to the EU could face crippling post-Brexit taxes within months, the sector has warned. UK Steel said it was “likely” that for some products, export quotas – the amount allowed under the terms of the trade deal permitted to be exported tariff free – would run out in the first quarter of 2021, after which exports would face a 25 percent tariff.
69. Defence: The Ulster Unionist Party has said that, under the Northern Ireland protocol, the UK Ministry of Defence must now give 15 days’ notice and fill out customs declaration forms before it moves military equipment from GB to NI.
68. Delivery times: British factories reported the steepest increase in supplier delivery times in a survey published by IHS Markit last week for the UK, France, Germany, Japan, Australia and the USA. IHS Markitt say this is almost exclusively linked to both Brexit disruption and a severe lack of international shipping availability.
67. Japan: Nikkei reports UK car production at its lowest in 20 years “thanks to Brexit”, and coronavirus has added to the declining trend due to uncertainty over EU withdrawal. It is unclear if, after the proposed switch to electric vehicles, Britain will remain attractive as a production base. Toyota and BMW are reportedly reconsidering their optimal strategy and there is no guarantee the next models will continue to be made in the UK.
66. Banks: EU banking authorities have granted open-ended equivalence to US securities clearing houses allowed them to serve investors in the EU. It contrasts with the time-limited agreement granted to UK clearers and raises fears that UK banks will lose out, putting at risk London’s role as a dominant financial centre.
65. Steel exports: South Yorkshire and Derbyshire bosses brand the Brexit deal a ‘total disaster’ set to cost jobs and close companies. Some businesses have already lost customers after the UK left the EU, bringing new inspections, delays and swathes of declarations, tariffs, fees and VAT payments.
64. Pigs: More than 100,000 surplus British pigs have been backed up on farms around the country by Brexit border problems. According to the Financial Times, UK farmers blame increased bureaucracy for a drop in exports as an influx of cheap European meat hits prices.
63. Fishing (Immingham): Delays due to new Brexit rules mean that Icelandic exporters are moving seafood to Europe through Rotterdam instead of Immingham, in North East Lincolnshire. Until December, Icelandic fish has been regularly shipped to Immingham, loaded onto trucks and driven to France and beyond. This is now going straight to the EU market in Europe via Rotterdam.
62. Fishing: Lough Neagh eel fishermen will have to find new markets for a fifth of their catch due to Brexit and the operation of the Northern Ireland Protocol. It means finding new buyers for 50 tonnes of eels, worth £500,000, just months before the start of this year’s season.
61. VAT: An engineering company is now being charged VAT at 22 percent on imported goods manufactured by its Italian sister company, which are then sold to another EU country, because it is a UK entity, adding 22 percent to their costs. Managing director David Lee said in a competitive market this is “an absolute killer.”
60. Yachtsmen. Almost 900,000 UK boaters are due to be hit by restrictions on how long they can stay in Europe after the Brexit transition period ends on 31 December 2020, a new survey by the Royal Yachting Association (RYA) has found.
59. Credit cards: Mastercard will increase fees more than fivefold when a British shopper uses a debit or credit card to buy from an EU-based company, sparking alarm among companies that rely on online payments and concern among MPs over higher consumer prices.
58. Fishing: Boris Johnson has unveiled a £23m fund to compensate the fishing industry for losses caused by Brexit red tape as Scottish seafood hauliers descended on Downing Street to protest.
57. Online retailers: UK retailers could abandon goods that EU customers want to return, with some even thinking of burning them because it is cheaper than bringing them home. They say the new EU trade deal has put costly duties on returns at a time when firms are already struggling.
56. Exporters: British-based exporters are being advised by the Department of Trade to register new entities inside the EU single market, from where they can distribute their goods far more freely while avoiding the extra charges, paperwork and taxes resulting from Brexit.
55. Wine: UK drinkers face paying up to £1.50 extra a bottle on many European wines while choosing from a reduced range, merchants have warned, as the burden of post-Brexit paperwork takes effect.
54. Dover: Residents feel “betrayed” and “trapped” by the “lies” of the government over Brexit after being told of a huge new lorry park capable of holding up to 1,200 trucks is to be built in a rural idyll which they say will destroy the quality of their lives and wreck the environment.
53. Business travellers: UK business people who intend to carry out paid work in the EU will now need to comply with a host of complex national rules including an ‘economic needs test’ in some cases. The new arrangements have been described as “fiendishly complicated” by Catherine Barnard, professor of EU and labour law at the University of Cambridge.
52. Hauliers: EU hauliers and transport companies are turning their backs on UK business because they are being asked to provide tens of thousands of pounds in guarantees to cover VAT or potential tariffs on arrival in Britain.
51. Artists: British performers will be unable to work in EU countries without a permit. Actors, musicians and comedians fear the new trade will severely curtail the ability of performers to tour in Europe, and will hamper the recovery of the arts after the devastating impact of the pandemic.
50. Horse racing: Relative to arrangements prior to 31 December 2020, the process of moving horses between the UK and the EU is considerably more administratively complex and time consuming according to the British Horse Racing Authority.
49. VAT: New rules mean goods shipped to EU countries are now liable for VAT when they enter the single market. Tax experts VAT IT estimate the levies could add £34bn ($47bn) to the cost of UK trade with the EU.
48. British expats: Britons living in the EU face financial headaches as European banks hike international payment fees and British banks close their accounts.
47. Galileo: Britain has lost access to the encrypted public regulated service of the Galileo global navigation satellite system and will no longer be able to play any part in the future development of it.
46. Ferries: Stena Line has redeployed a ferry, the Stena Embla, away from its intended Birkenhead to Belfast route to meet extra demand for direct shipments from Rosslare to mainland Europe, as traders change supply chains to avoid additional paperwork in Britain.
45. Aviation: UK airlines can no longer offer services between EU member states (eg London-Frankfurt-Warsaw) or domestic services within them (eg Paris-Marseille) and have lost the right to operate onward passenger services from EU member states to destinations in non-member states (eg London-Amsterdam-Bangkok).
44. The Falklands: The Islands are excluded from the UK-EU trade deal. Products coming from the islands to the EU may now face tariffs. It’s a major concern for the economy of the islands, which exports 90 percent of its fish to Europe.
43. Price rises 1: Ford has raised the UK list prices of some of its models, blaming post-Brexit rules of origin tariffs according to Autocar magazine. The Fiesta ST Edition went up by £1,695 between Dec and Jan, with Puma ST getting £1,920 more expensive.
42. Spanish tax increases: UK-based owners of Spanish properties now have a 24 percent tax rate on income. This compares with a 19 percent tax rate previously, before the transition period ended. It is due to Britain becoming a third country. Spanish tax authorities will also no longer allow any expenses to be deducted, which means gross income is taxable.
41. Mobile phone roaming: The UK’s trade deal with the EU does not rule out additional costs for UK customers using their mobile phones in EU countries. The biggest UK operators have said they do not plan to reintroduce roaming charges, but the BBC says it may not be that simple in the coming years.
40. Lorry parks: The government has built a 2,000 truck capacity lorry park on compulsorily purchased land just off Junction 10A of the M2o in Kent, against the wishes of local residents in the village of Sevington.
39. Share trading: The three biggest venues in London that handle European shares saw almost all of this business (about $5bn daily) shift into the EU on the first trading day after Brexit. Chief executive of Aquis Exchange Plc told Bloomberg that 99.6 percent of its European stock trading moved to Paris, described as a “spectacular own goal” for Britain post-Brexit.
38. Food 3: A raft of red tape plus new checks at the border could add £3bn in costs for food importers, according to the UK’s Food and Drink Federation. That’s about an 8 percent increase – some of which could work its way down to prices paid at checkouts.
37. Tech start ups: For the very first time, the European Union will become a direct shareholder in startups. This will be possible via the creation of one of the biggest investment funds in Europe. Brexit Britain will not be eligible.
36. Amazon: Amazon will no longer transfer UK sellers’ goods to the EU in a move set to have major implications for merchants both sides of the border. Amazon has informed its UK sellers that “pan-European FBA (Fulfilled by Amazon) inventory transfers will stop between the UK and EU” on January 1 2021.
35. Architects: As a result of Brexit, architects from the UK will have to demonstrate compliance on a state-by-state basis before calling themselves and operating as architects. See also Professional Qualifications below.
34. Business travellers now face fines of up to €20,000 if they fail to obtain special permits for visits to conferences or exhibitions in the EU after Brexit, as there is no Brexit deal for the service industry.
33. Chemicals industry is now required to operate a separate registration system for the near 5,000 substances made by UK companies, details of which are currently held in the EU REACH database, at an ‘immediate cost’ of about £1bn.
32. Consumer safety: UK loses access to EU RAPEX rapid alert system (also known as Safety Gate)a notification system used by Trading Standards to share information about unsafe products found on the marketplace meaning more dangerous goods and toys could now enter the UK internal market.
30. Customs declarations: An additional 250 million customs declarations will now be required annually, needing an estimated 50,000 form fillers at a cost of about £7bn.
29. Erasmus: The British government has decided not to participate in the student exchange scheme know as Erasmus, for financial reasons. It will create its own cheaper alternative.
28. EU family members of British citizens no longer have the automatic right to join them to live in the UK and now have to comply with entry criteria including income requirements.
27. Exporting meat products: Exporters of food products of animal origin to the EU are now required to pay for an export health certificate for each consignment costing around £200. This also applies to ‘exports’ to Northern Ireland.
26. Exports 1: At least 50 major UK retailers, including Marks and Spencer and Tesco, are in the process of going through their products lines, to establish how many of them will now be subject to tariffs from the EU. River Island and H&M have both confirmed to ITV News they expect to pay penalty tariffs on some clothing sent between their UK and EU businesses.
25. Fishing 1: The shellfish industry now faces a bureaucratic mountain, with a wave of form-filling, certification and tariffs to deal with. Traders who sell live crabs and lobsters into the EU now expect delays caused by bottlenecks and new rules.
24. Fishing 2: The Yorkshire Post has learned Whitby fishing crews “will be worse off in 2021 than before they left the EU”. DEFRA Secretary George Eustice, Michael Gove and Boris Johnson were accused of “betraying” fisherman worse then before because they “knew exactly what they were doing when they devastated coastal communities”.
23. Food 1: The EU-UK food chain will be “slower, more complex and more expensive for months if not years” according to Shane Brennan, chief executive of the Cold Chain Federation.
22. Food 2: There is no equivalence agreement on sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures to reduce or eliminate checks on agricultural goods, like the EU offered to New Zealand and Japan.
21. Football: UK football clubs can no longer sign under-18s and are restricted to only three overseas signings under the age of 21, and only six foreign players per season.
20. Freedom of movement ends: British people have lost the automatic right to live and work across 26 nations of the EU (excluding Ireland).
19. Freight costs: The cost of moving freight from France to the UK surged to more than four times the usual level, after Brexit and a virulent new strain of the coronavirus complicated supply chains.
18. Manufacturing: After 1 January 2022, manufacturers will need to meet two different standards and will have to label products UKCA for the home market, and CE for those exported to the EU, adding costs to certification, manufacturing and stocking.
17. Meat exports: Government guidance on Brexit, updated on 28 December, states that UK producers of “chilled meat preparations”, are “prohibited” from exporting their goods to Europe as of 1 January. This includes chilled raw sausages, chilled mince, ungraded eggs, and some unpasteurised milk.
16. Medical insurance: UK holidaymakers travelling in the EU now need medical insurance cover. Failure to take out the necessary insurance could result in hospital bills of £2,000 for food poisoning or £14,000 for a heart attack.
15. Mutual recognition: There is no mutual recognition of conformity assessments any more. British authorities are unable to certify goods made in the UK meet EU standards adding costs to domestic manufacturers and suppliers.
14. Netflix: Because the UK is no longer part of the digital single market, cross-border portability of online content ceased to apply from 1 January. UK users travelling to the EU will be unable to access the UK streaming library.
13. Northern Ireland (Irish Sea) customs border: Collectively, traders now need to file 11 million new customs declarations for goods moving from Great Britain to Northern Ireland.
12. Packaging 1: All wood packaging materials including pallets must now be heat-treated and marked according to the ISPM15 international standard. Any business that does not comply could face shipments being rejected and, in some cases, fines.
11. Passport queues: Britons are no longer allowed to use fast lanes at European airports and Eurostar terminals.
10. Pets: To visit the EU, dogs now need to be microchipped and vaccinated against rabies, with a health certificate issued by a vet 10 days before the visit. They must go though a designated TPE (travellers point of entry).
9. Professional qualifications: There is no mutual recognition of professional qualifications any more, which means professionals with UK qualifications no longer have the automatic right to practice or work across the EU27.
8. Road hauliers: UK operators are now only able to conduct one cabotage trip in the EU, while EU trucks have the possibility of doing two cabotage trips in the UK after a loaded inbound movement, according to the Road Haulage Association.
7. Rules of origin: To avoid tariffs, British exporters to the EU need to comply with complex rules of origin to provide evidence of sufficient local content to qualify for tariff exemption.
6. Safety and Security declaration: Around 250 million safety and security declarations now need to be made by UK hauliers, adding extra costs to 50 percent of our exports.
5. Second home owners: UK citizens with second homes in the EU are now only allowed to spend 90 days there, in any 180 day period.
4. Seed potatoes: The EU has banned the import of seed potatoes, in a move which will be a “disastrous Brexit outcome for Scottish farmers”, First Minister Nicola Sturgeon claims.
3. Sky streaming services: We are no longer entitled to stream Sky TV outside the UK using Sky Go, Sky Kids, Sky Sports, Sky Sports Mobile TV and Sky Sports Box Office apps. Some Sky apps allow you to download your favourite shows and movies over WiFi before you leave home to watch offline while you’re abroad. This also applies to other streaming services (see Netflix above).
2. Trade 1: Over 150 UK and EU firms have dramatically changed plans due to Brexit, including many who now refuse to supply goods to the UK. The list was compiled by Edwin Hayward, author of Slaying Brexit Unicorns.
1. VAT: EU exporters to the UK are expected to collect the tax at source, and pay to register for the scheme. Most won’t, unless we form the bulk of their market, so “we do not ship to UK” will become more common. This could provide a small boost for UK operators, if they can fill the gap, but it limits consumer choice. (Also see Trade 1 above).
17. Pint glasses. Ministers are expected to announce plans to reintroduce the crown stamp on pint glasses in pubs in the coming weeks. New proposals will repeal “onerous” rules and allow hospitality venues to voluntarily place the crown on pint glasses, according to The Daily Express
16. Animal Welfare. Live animal exports for slaughter are to be banned and journey times in England and Wales shortened with stricter rules on temperature and headroom in lorries, a joint statement from Defra and the Welsh government has confirmed. It follows a 12-week consultation, attracting more than 11,000 responses – of which over 7,400 came from the RSPCA
15. Wine. UK shoppers will save 20 pence per bottle on Australian wine under the terms of Britain’s new free trade deal with Canberra, according to the Government. The deal will see tariffs on Australian wine imports ‘slashed’ by up to 20p per bottle. It is hoped the move will see more varieties of wine imported, giving shoppers greater choice.
14. EU popular support: Polling shows that support for EU membership is above 80 percent in most member states following Brexit. The Kantar survey asked how people would vote in an in-out referendum and found that Luxembourg (94 percent), Portugal (92 percent), Ireland (91 percent), and the Netherlands (91 percent) had the highest support for EU membership out of the 27 countries in the bloc.
13. EU Recovery fund: The EU have agreed an €800bn recovery fund involving joint borrowing and shared debt, something many believe no British prime minister would have been able to agree without strong domestic political headwinds.
12. Ketchup: The US food giant Kraft Heinz is investing £140m in its Wigan plant to return production of tomato ketchup, salad cream and mayonnaise from its Dutch plant. Although Brexit was not cited as a reason for the move, Kraft called it a ‘strong vote of confidence’ in the UK.
11. Gibraltar: The rock can no longer be accused of being a tax haven, because of an agreement struck between Spain and the United Kingdom which came into force this week. The treaty aims to eliminate tax fraud and the detrimental effects of a tax system that allowed people to pay corporate tax only on the profits they made in Gibraltar.
10. Financial services: Almost 1,500 EU-based financial services firms applied for permission to operate in the UK, with around 1,000 of these planning to establish their first UK office, according to a Freedom of Information request by Bovill.
9. Bees: Some beekeepers argue that by banning the import of live bees, this will reduce the risk of bringing pests and diseases into the country by accident.
8. Fishing: The UK has decided to ban bottom trawling – a fishing technique where nets are dragged along the sea bottom – in the marine protected area of the Dogger Bank in the North Sea. DEFRA Secretary George Eustice said, “Now that we have left the [EU] Common Fisheries Policy, we are able to deliver on our commitment to achieve a healthy, thriving and sustainable marine environment”.
7. Air Traffic Control: Revised visibility & distance from cloud. As of 20 May 2021, the UK will revert to the rules on flight visibility and distance from cloud in class D airspace that existed up to 26 March 2020. This will be welcomed by many aviators.
6. Vehicle theft: Life will be harder for international bike thieves trying to move stolen machines through ports, according to leading vehicle crime expert, Dr Ken German. Gangs who had previously exploited the ease of access to mainland Europe through ports like Dover to move stolen machines quickly into new markets will now find it harder to do so post-Brexit.
5. Tax havens: Now the UK no longer has a veto, the European parliament is pushing for British overseas territories and crown dependencies, including the British Virgin Islands, Guernsey and Jersey, to be added to an EU tax havens blacklist after the conclusion of the Brexit deal.
4. Share trading: The UK will bring trading in Swiss shares back to London in the coming weeks, marking the first significant split from EU policy on financial services since the end of the Brexit transition period.
3. Advanced warning on goods: From July this year (2021), the UK will start receiving advance data on all goods coming from the EU into Great Britain, something which has not previously been possible under EU rules.
2. Fishing: Britain’s fishermen will increase their allowable catch from British waters over the next five years, although the precise amount is disputed and some in the industry claim the new trade deal represents a betrayal.
1. Gibraltar: To avoid a hard border, Gibraltar may join the EU’s Schengen zone and follow other EU rules, while remaining a British Overseas Territory. The agreement to look at this option was announced by Spanish Foreign Minister Arancha González Laya, just hours before the UK exited the EU.